In chapter one God (Hebrew אֱלֹהִ֔ים Elohim) creates the world in six days, then rests on, blesses and sanctifies the seventh day. God creates by spoken command ("Let there be..."), suggesting a comparison with a king, who has only to speak for things to happen; each command is followed by name-giving ("And he called..."). The characteristic Hebrew verb used to describe God's creative act in this chapter is ברא, bara, which throughout the bible is used only with God as its subject - that is, only God can bara. Chapter two describes Yahweh, the personal name of God, forming the first man from dust, placing him in the Garden of Eden, and removing a rib from his side to make the first woman, Eve. In Genesis 2 the word used when God forms the first man is יצר, yatsar, meaning "fashioned", a verb used in contexts such as a potter forming a pot from clay. God breathes his own breath into the man he has formed and he becomes a living soul/being, נֶפֶש nephesh. Man shares nephesh with all creatures, but only of man is this life-giving act of God described. Robert Alter described the combined narrative as "compelling in its archetypal character, its adaptation of myth to monotheistic ends".
A common hypothesis among biblical scholars today is that the first major comprehensive draft of the Pentateuch (the series of five books which begins with Genesis and ends with Deuteronomy) was composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BC by the Jahwist source and that this was later expanded by the addition of various narratives and laws by the Priestly source into a work very like the one existing today. In the narrative the two sources appear in reverse order: Genesis 1 is Priestly and Genesis 2 is Jahwistic. The Israelites borrowed some Mesopotamian themes but adapted them to their belief in one God as expressed by the shema, and their over-riding purpose was to establish a monotheistic creation in opposition to the polytheistic creation myth of Israel's historic enemy, Babylon. -Wikipedia
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