Half human - Half fly - 100% flesh eating zombie Tessa Farmer - Art Fairy
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In 1937, while
researching folklore in Haiti, Zora Neale Hurston encountered the case of a
woman who appeared in a village, and a family claimed she was Felicia
Felix-Mentor, a relative who had died and been buried in 1907 at the age of 29.
However, the woman had been examined by a doctor, who found on X-ray that she
did not have the leg fracture that Felix-Mentor was known to have had.
Hurston pursued rumors that the affected persons were given a powerful
psychoactive drug, but she was unable to locate individuals willing to offer
much information. She wrote:
What is more, if science ever gets to the
bottom of Voodoo in Haiti and Africa, it will be found that some important
medical secrets, still unknown to medical science, give it its power, rather
than gestures of ceremony.
later, Wade Davis, a Harvard ethnobotanist, presented a pharmacological case
for zombies in two books, The Serpent and the Rainbow (1985) and Passage of
Darkness: The Ethnobiology of the Haitian Zombie (1988). Davis traveled to
Haiti in 1982 and, as a result of his investigations, claimed that a living
person can be turned into a zombie by two special powders being introduced into
the blood stream (usually via a wound). The first, coup de poudre (French:
"powder strike"), includes tetrodotoxin (TTX), a powerful and
frequently fatal neurotoxin found in the flesh of the pufferfish (order
Tetraodontidae). The second powder consists of dissociative drugs such as
datura. Together, these powders were said to induce a deathlike state in which
the will of the victim would be entirely subjected to that of the bokor. Davis
also popularized the story of Clairvius Narcisse, who was claimed to have
succumbed to this practice.
described by Davis was an initial state of deathlike suspended animation,
followed by re-awakening — typically after being buried — into a psychotic
state. The psychosis induced by the drug and psychological trauma was
hypothesised by Davis to re-inforce culturally learned beliefs and to cause the
individual to reconstruct their identity as that of a zombie, since they
"knew" they were dead, and had no other role to play in the Haitian
society. Societal reinforcement of the belief was hypothesized by Davis to
confirm for the zombie individual the zombie state, and such individuals were
known to hang around in graveyards, exhibiting attitudes of low affect.
Davis's claim has
been criticized, particularly the suggestion that Haitian witch doctors can
keep "zombies" in a state of pharmacologically induced trance for
many years. Symptoms of TTX poisoning range from numbness and nausea to
paralysis — particularly of the muscles of the diaphragm — unconsciousness, and
death, but do not include a stiffened gait or a deathlike trance. According to
psychologist Terence Hines, the scientific community dismisses tetrodotoxin as
the cause of this state, and Davis' assessment of the nature of the reports of
Haitian zombies is viewed as overly credulous.
psychiatrist R. D. Laing highlighted the link between social and cultural
expectations and compulsion, in the context of schizophrenia and other mental
illness, suggesting that schizogenesis may account for some of the
psychological aspects of zombification.
Slaves brought to
Haiti in the 17th and 18th centuries, believed that when they died, Baron
Samedi would gather them from their grave to bring them to heaven, unless they
had offended him in some way, such as committing suicide, in which case they'd
be forever a slave after death, as a zombie. -Wikipedia